Archives de catégorie : Colloque

Conférence inaugurale / «Decentralization : another way to think and plan our urban and rural environments»

Catherine Maumi est invitée à donner, le 11 décembre 2018, la conférence inaugurale du colloque « The idea of decentralization and regional planning, in the 20th Century. Projects, visions, ideologies between the Cold War and the Welfare State » qui se tiendra les 11 et 12 décembre 2018 au Politecnico di Milano. 

La conférence, intitulée « Decentralization: another way to think and plan our urban and rural environments », proposera d’explorer certaines des théories décentralisatrices développées au cours du XXe siècle. 

Résumé
L’idée de décentralisation n’a cessé d’être revisitée au cours du XXe siècle, plus particulièrement dans les moments de crises – politique, économique, environnementale, sociale, culturelle, … La décentralisation s’entend pour certains, au début du XXe siècle, comme le moyen de s’opposer aux effets dévastateurs de la métropolisation qui, depuis le dernier quart du XIXe siècle, ruine les ressources naturelles, les cultures et économies locales, uniformisant les modes de vie. Nombre des partisans de la décentralisation sont alors mobilisés par la volonté de lutter contre l’ordre établi et la conviction qu’une autre organisation spatiale, en phase avec la nouvelle société plus équitable à laquelle devait donner jour le monde « moderne » du XXe siècle, serait à même de modifier cet ordre des choses. Décentraliser revenait aussi, dans certains contextes, à adopter un mode de développement plus respectueux de l’environnement – de la Terre – et de l’Homme.
Pour cette raison, la pensée décentralisatrice ne peut être considérée uniquement sous l’angle d’une nouvelle réorganisation des diverses activités sur le sol ; elle constitue également un nouvel ordre économique et social se voulant plus égalitaire, celui-ci étant désormais envisageable grâce au déploiement des techniques modernes (l’électricité, le téléphone, la motorisation, la radio, etc.).

Le programme


Ce colloque fait suite à celui organisé à l’ENSAG les 9 et 11 novembre 2017.

COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL/ PRODUCTIVE MOUNTAINS. LANDSCAPES, ACTORS, FLOWS, PERSPECTIVES

Du 20 au 23 juin a eu lieu le colloque international « Productives mountains. Landscapes, actors, flows, perspectives. », organisé par Rete Montagna et IUAV à Venise et en Val Comelico, Dolomites.

Caterina Franco  a présenté son travail intitulé « Between product and resource : the transformation of landscape in the history of ski resorts in the French-Italian Alps »

 

 

 

Résumé :

The proposed contribution deals with the production of a landscape by the development of tourist activity in the highlands of the French-Italian Alps. We refer to landscape as to a synergy between the natural features of a site and the work of man on it (Turri, 2001) and we focus the attention on the evolution of this relationship after the implantation ex-nihlo of cities for leisure and sports occurred after the Second World War.
The trajectory of this evolution is characterized by an initial  massive exploitation of the environmental elements of the site like snow or pastures; a breaking point after the oil crisis in 1973 and some winters without snow, that demonstrated how the availability of those natural elements was not unlimited; finally, evidences of strategies adopted to face external changes, like huge modification of sites for production of artificial snow or, in some cases, the enhancement of alternative natural features to enlarge the tourist offer.
The main objective of the research is to provide a new knowledge of the historical process of design and construction of alpine ski resorts, shifting from the analysis of autonomous and decontextualized objects, towards the enquire on the transformations that occurred to the natural environment, (using water, soil and vegetation as indicators) and to the built environment (considering the changings in the system of infrastructure).
Basing on the idea that the comprehension of the historical process helps in understanding the response that these sites are giving towards the actual critical issues, the research also wants to provide tools for the actors engaged in the reflection on the future of ski resorts. Understanding the relationship between the tourist activity and the elements of the natural landscape could open the way to a reflection of them as territorial resources (Gumuchian, Pecqueur, 2007).
The contribution proposes a case study analysis of La Plagne, in Savoy (France) and San Sicario in Piemonte (Italy). Trough documents collected in the archives of architects or in municipal archives, we analyse the projects to understand the evolution of ideas; through historical maps or orthoimages we study the effective transformation of the territory. Drawing and cartography are the principal tools used to retrace the changing of the landscape, together with the production of systemic timelines to understand the network of actors and urban tools that contributed to the modification of land.
Landscape is a crucial aspect in the reflection on the future of the high-altitude ski resorts. Indeed, on one side, landscape features could play an important role in the process of diversification of the tourist offer, on the other hand, natural resources will increasingly be considered in the elaboration of post-carbon scenarios.
The research also seems to suggest that both the history and the strategies that could be implemented are “site specific”: rather than proposing general models, a deep understanding of each context could help in revealing its potentialities and vulnerabilities.

> Pour plus d’informations sur ces journées : Le programme

Conférence inaugurale / Colloque MODSCAPES, Modernism, Modernisation and the Rural Landscape

Catherine Maumi a été invitée à donner la conférence inaugurale du colloque international MODSCAPES, Modernism, Modernisation and the Rural Landscape qui s’est tenu à Tartu (Estonie) du 11 au 13 juin 2018.

La conférence s’intitulait « Ruralism as opposed to Urbanism; Regional Planning as Human Ecology. When modernity was also an invitation to be inhabitants of the Earth ».

Résumé
At the beginning of the 20th century, the United States do not reflect anymore the ideal of being the “Garden of the World”, one which had fostered the imagination of its inhabitants since the end of the 18th century, and had built a specific landscape – the pastoralor middle landscape – during the 19th. The country has now established itself as a major industrial and economic force, and New York symbolizes this new national power. However, this evolution wasn’t without serious consequences on the living conditions within the urban and rural realms, where a large part of the population was getting poorer. It had also caused dramatic transformations of the natural landscape and even, more important, large-scale ecological disasters.
These significant changes invited some professionals and intellectuals (economists, architects, landscape architects, urban planners, foresters, etc.) to work on new economic, political and spatial proposals in order to avoid all kind of speculation – on the land, money and on human workforce – and to imagine new ways of life on Earth more respectful of its resources, natural ecosystems, but also of the living world, humans being part of it.
The first proposal we will focused on is the idea of geotechnics, or Regional planning, as defined by Benton MacKaye, and as illustrated by his project for the Appalachian Trail, first presented in 1921. According to MacKaye, “Regional planning is ecology. It is human ecology ; its concern is the relation of the human organism to its environment”.
The second project is the one proposed by Frank Lloyd Wright with Broadacre City, illustrated by the model shown in 1935; it was built with the purpose of explaining to the general public a new, cooperative and democratic way of life on Earth. It is impossible to dissociate anymore the rural realm from the urban one in Broadacre City, where “it is true that landscape becomes architecture just as architecture becomes a kind of landscape. But both are integral with the ground and are an orchestration of form according to nature”.
Both visions are inviting us to think about the problems we have to face now, on the 21st Century, on any place of the Earth.


Plus d’informations sur la conférence inaugurale : keynote speakers
Programme du colloque : modscapes conference 2018


Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City Project (Model in four sections),1934-1935. Source: The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Archives (The Museum of Modern Art | Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, New York), 1853.2012.a-d © Photo: Catherine Maumi, 2017.
Frank Lloyd Wright, Broadacre City Project (Model in four sections),1934-1935. Source: The Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation Archives (The Museum of Modern Art | Avery Architectural & Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, New York), 1853.2012.a-d © Photo: Catherine Maumi, 2017.

COLLOQUE INTERNATIONAL/ TOURISCAPE. TRANSVERSAL TOURISM AND LANDSCAPE

Les 8-9 et 10 février a eu lieu le colloque « Touriscape» à Torremolinos (Malaga).

Caterina Franco  a présenté son travail intitulé « Ski resorts in the Alps: questioning the concept of natural resource through the history of a landscape ».

 

Résumé :

OBJECT OF THE RESEARCH

The proposed contribution deals with the role of landscape in the history and future of the ski resorts built at a high altitude in the French Italian Alps. We refer to landscape as to a synergy between the natural features of a site and the work of man on it (Turri, 2001) and we focus the attention on the evolution of this relationship after the implantation ex-nihlo of cities for leisure and sports occurred after the Second World War.

The trajectory of this evolution could be defined by the succession of three moments: at first, a massive exploitation of the environmental elements of the site like snow (the primary motor of the investment) or pastures (a reserve of buildable soil); secondly, a breaking point after the oil crisis in 1973 and some winters without snow in the eighties, that demonstrated how the availability of those natural elements was not unlimited; finally, evidences of strategies adopted to face external changes, like huge modification of sites for production of artificial snow or, in some cases, the enhancement of alternative natural features to enlarge the tourist offer.

STATE OF THE ART AND RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS

The long-term future of ski resorts is uncertain for different causes, both structural (like the aging of the dwellings facilities or of the infrastructure) and circumstantial (like climate change, a shortening of the duration of the tourist’s stay or a shift in the global economic situation). Some research centres both in France and in Italy are now working on this topic, from different disciplines1. In general, geographers and economists underline the necessity to study the ski resorts in continuity with territory and on a scale proper to analyse its relation with the context (François, 2007; Marcelpoil, Billet, François, 2010).

1 Like the IRSTEA or the LabEx ITEM, based in Grenoble (FR) or the Università della Montagna, in Edolo (IT).

In the field of architectural research, ski resorts have been considered mostly as autonomous settlements, the result of a colonization of the mountain by the urban world (Zanzi, 2004). Through an archival research we mobilize documents that have not been explored yet, and that enables us to shift from the analysis of decontextualized objects towards the enquire on the transformation of a landscape.

OBJECTIVES

The main objective is to provide a new knowledge of the historical process of design and construction of alpine ski resorts. We include, in the research, the study of the transformations that occurred to the natural environment, selecting some indicators like water, soil and vegetation and to the built environment, analyzing the changes in the system of infrastructure.

We explore the hypothesis that the comprehension of the historical process helps in understanding the response that these sites are giving towards the actual critical issues. The research is thus meant to provide tools for the actors engaged in the reflection on the future of ski resorts. Understanding the relationship between the tourist activity and the elements of the natural landscape could open the way to a reflection of them as territorial resources (Gumuchian, Pecqueur, 2007).

METHODOLOGY

The contribution proposes a case study analysis of La Plagne, in Savoy (France) and San Sicario in Piemonte (Italy), using different kinds of sources. Trough documents collected in the archives of architects (Laurent Chappis, Michel Bezançon) or in municipal archives we analyse the projects (built or non-built) to understand the evolution of ideas; through the analysis of historical maps or orthoimages we study the effective transformation of the territory.

Drawing and cartography are the principal tools used to retrace the changing of the landscape, together with the production of tables and timelines to understand, for each step, the network of actors and urban tools that contributed to the modification of land, considering the ski resort as a tourist system (Tissot, 2004).

PREVIOUS CONCLUSIONS

Landscape is a crucial aspect in the reflection on the future of the high-altitude ski resorts. Indeed, on one side, landscape features could play an important role in the process of diversification of the tourist offer, on the other hand, natural resources will increasingly be considered in the elaboration of post-carbon scenarios, as claimed by the policies of the transition énergétique.

The research also seems to suggest that both the history and the strategies that could be implemented are “site specific”: rather than proposing general models, a deep understanding of each context could help in revealing its potentialities and vulnerabilities.

> Pour plus d’informations sur ces journées : Le programme

Colloque international / Pensée décentralisatrice et projet de territoire, au XXe siècle

Colloque international

Pensée décentralisatrice et projet de territoire, au XXe siècle

9-10 novembre 2017
ENSAG – Amphi Simounet

Après une première journée « Pensée décentralisatrice et projet de territoire » organisée en décembre 2016, le laboratoire organise un colloque international intitulé « Pensée décentralisatrice et projet de territoire, au XXe siècle ». Il se tiendra à l‘ENSA Grenoble les 9 et 10 novembre 2017, en amhi Simounet.

Continuer la lecture de Colloque international / Pensée décentralisatrice et projet de territoire, au XXe siècle